With the maturity of UAV technology and the further expansion of aerial photography technology, the application fields of civil UAV in our country are increasing, including photogrammetry, emergency rescue, fire fighting, disaster relief, public safety, resource exploration, environmental monitoring, natural disaster monitoring and assessment, urban planning and municipal management, forest fire pest protection and monitoring, etc.
At present, our country’s fire forces are facing increasingly complicated situations of fire fighting and rescue and social assistance. For various situations such as earthquake rescue, flood fighting and rescue, mountain rescue and long-span or high-rise fires, the limitations of traditional on-site investigation methods have become increasingly prominent. How to effectively implement fire warning and on-site detection, and how to deal with the disaster quickly and accurately is particularly important. The mature application of UAV application technology and system solutions in our country makes the UAV platform combine video, wireless image transmission and other monitoring and transmission equipment to conduct fire hazard inspection on complex terrain and complex structure buildings through the air, on-site rescue command, fire detection and prevention and control have become new choices for fire forces.
Combined with the actual combat needs of the fire forces, the application of unmanned aerial vehicles can solve the following four problems:
1. Disaster investigation. When a disaster occurs, unmanned aerial vehicles are used for disaster investigation. Firstly, the terrain and environment can be ignored, and the investigation can be carried out flexibly, especially in some urgent and dangerous disaster sites, when the investigation team cannot carry out the investigation, the unmanned aerial vehicle can quickly carry out the investigation. Second, the efficiency of investigation can be effectively improved through unmanned aerial vehicle investigation, and the key factors of disasters and accidents can be found out in the first place so that commanders can make correct decisions. Third, it can effectively avoid casualties, not only prevent people from entering dangerous environments such as toxic, inflammable and explosive, but also comprehensively and carefully grasp the situation on site.
2. Monitoring and tracking. The role of unmanned aerial vehicles is not limited to disaster detection. The scene of all kinds of disasters and accidents faced by the fire fighting forces often changes rapidly. In the process of dealing with disasters and accidents, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for real-time monitoring and tracking can provide accurate disaster changes, it is convenient for headquarters at all levels to grasp the dynamic disaster situation in time, so as to make rapid and accurate countermeasures and minimize disaster losses.
3. Auxiliary rescue. Using UAV integration or flexible carrying of key equipment can provide help for rescue in various situations: Open up rescue ways for rescue. For example, in the rescue of water and mountains, the use environment and scope of the existing throwing device have great limitations, and the accuracy is poor, using unmanned aerial vehicles to assist the throwing rope or carrying key equipment, it can create new ways for rescue, open up life-saving channels, and is accurate and efficient. Integrate communication equipment and use unmanned aerial vehicles as communication relays. For example, in the environments with communication blocking such as earthquakes and mountains, unmanned aerial vehicles are used to integrate the transfer module and act as temporary transfer stations, thus establishing wireless communication links in extreme environments. Use unmanned aerial vehicles for emergency mapping. The UAV integrated aerial photography mapping module is used to collect all the situations of the disaster scene and transmit them to the on-site headquarters to conduct emergency mapping on the terrain of the disaster scene, providing strong support for the rescue.
4. Auxiliary supervision. Use aerial photography to realize comprehensive and real-time monitoring of high-rise and super high-rise buildings, timely discover fire hazards, real-time control of fire on site, inspection of building fire protection or storage of fire images on site, can connect air monitoring video to other security or fire monitoring systems in real time.
Due to the adoption of advanced technology flight control platform and front and back-end video monitoring and transmission system, combined with perfect flight and ground handling support system, unmanned aerial vehicle can implement complete long-term air monitoring on the ground, so as to achieve a lower comprehensive cost to carry out real-time monitoring and auxiliary rescue for areas that traditional means cannot set foot in. Its intelligence and advancement are highlighted in inspection path planning, intelligent analysis, fixed-point continuous monitoring, fire alarm, etc., and give full play to the important role of technical prevention measures in formulating emergency plans, establishing rapid response mechanism, on-site fire filing and evidence collection, etc.
Its technical advantages include:
1. Flexible. Small unmanned aerial vehicles are light in weight and can be controlled by flight controls. Only one to two people are needed to complete such operations. Under the circumstances of poor roads and traffic interruption, you can carry it to the scene of the disaster accident on foot. The takeoff conditions are very simple, and there is no requirement for the terrain. Besides, the unmanned aerial vehicle is convenient to carry, so it has strong flexibility.
In addition, the flight speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle is easy to control, the turning radius is small, the maneuverability is good, the flight direction can be flexibly controlled, the airborne camera can also track the shooting object; The unmanned aerial vehicle can also quickly reach the designated location, the reaction ability is fast, and the ability to adapt to the environment and climate conditions is also very strong. In the guarantee test of “Shenshan Mountain” in Tarchin, Tibet in 2014, the unmanned aerial vehicle completed its flight mission under 6-level wind power, limited by rainy weather and other conditions, it is much smaller than that of large manned aircraft; Its takeoff condition only needs a few square meters of open space, and there are no prominent obstacles around it. When operating at low altitude, limited by climatic conditions is very small, the speed of obtaining images is very fast, and the detection function can be stably and reliably played within 10 kilometers.
2. Comprehensive vision. Unmanned aerial vehicles can realize over-the-horizon control through wireless technology, thus having a very comprehensive field of vision. According to site requirements, they can operate under different light conditions from different angles and distances. It can not only realize the overall shooting of the target at high altitude, but also adjust the distance and angle, and capture the key factors that are of great help to the on-site decision-making as needed. Through remote control of unmanned aerial vehicles and cameras, images can be collected and transmitted in real-time according to actual needs, especially when flying at low altitude, unmanned aerial vehicles have strong tracking and shooting ability, and the image resolution obtained by using airborne cameras is very high, if the camera is equipped with night vision functions such as hot vision, the recorded videos will be more comprehensive. This method provides a strong guarantee for the realization of real-time air monitoring on the scene of disasters and accidents, and can effectively improve the detection ability of fire forces in emergency rescue.
3. Simple operation. From a technical point of view, the remote video transmission and control system of unmanned aerial vehicle is connected to the ground station through network and interface, and is connected to the command center through optical fiber. Therefore, only through remote control camera and its auxiliary equipment, you can directly watch the real-time video of the UAV camera. Generally, users only need to realize all the actions of the unmanned aerial vehicle through the remote control, and know the situation at a glance through the remote video transmission and control system, so as to realize remote and convenient all-round monitoring; after the client is connected to the public network, the user can control the unmanned aerial vehicle through various carriers such as PC, tablet computer or mobile phone. From the application level, the actual operation of unmanned aerial vehicles is not complicated. As long as the operation of flight, audio and video control and other compatible modules is mastered, the efficiency can be brought into play.
4. Safe and reliable. No matter facing the severe weather environment such as rainstorm, high temperature, Typhoon, debris flow, etc.; Or the scene of serious accidents such as inflammable, explosive, collapse, toxic, etc.; Or the extreme geographical environment such as mountains, canyons, gullies, etc, UAV technology can effectively avoid the shortcomings existing in traditional fire fighting and rescue operations, and can ensure the safety of fire fighting officers and soldiers themselves. And can provide safe and reliable basis for the command and decision-making of accident disposal through following up and tracking the situation on site, and can control the development of the disaster to the maximum extent and reduce the loss of the disaster, reduce casualties.
5. Real-time image transmission. The unmanned aerial vehicle uses COFDM wireless image transmission technology to transmit high-definition images to the ground receiving terminal in real time while shooting the disaster scene, and the video transmission quality is as high as 1080p. Because COFDM Technology has the feature of broadcast transmission, UAV video can be simultaneously received by multiple terminals such as command vehicle, command center, manipulator micro portable terminal, etc.
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